The manic pursuit of communists led by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, Rep. Richard Nixon and Sen. Joseph McCarthy at the end of the 1940s and in the early 1950s had social and political aftershocks that lasted for decades. We use essential cookies to perform essential website functions, e.g. Andrew, Christopher. All that Grabeel and her colleagues could do at first was try to sort the traffic by its point of origin, which might suggest it was either for trade or for diplomatic correspondence. Eventually, as the end of the war approached, experienced cryptanalysts were moved onto the VENONA team, and one, Lt. Richard Hallock, a former archeology student who had translated texts from Babylonian dialects, searched the traffic methodically for repetitions of number sequences. During the 37-year duration of the Venona project, the Signal Intelligence Service decrypted and translated approximately 3,000 messages. For Lowenthal's work on the Hiss case see the, Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, History of Soviet and Russian espionage in the United States, List of Soviet agents in the United States, "Comments on John Earl Haynes', "The Cold War Debate Continues: A Traditionalist View of Historical Writing on Domestic Communism and Anti-Communism, United States Army Center of Military History, Cryptologic Almanac 50th Anniversary Series -- VENONA: An Overview (DOCID: 3575728), "Women in Cryptologic History - Genevieve Feinstein - NSA/CSS", "Why Are One-Time Pads Perfectly Secure? If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Robert Lamphere's book, The FBI-KGB War, was released in 1986. Gardner would say of the decryption project, with a kind of naive sweetness, “I never wanted it to get anyone in trouble.” Wright tells us that in Gardner’s mind, “VENONA was almost an art form, and he did not want it sullied by crude McCarthyism.” But by the 1960s it was far too late for such second thoughts. Another critique of the Venona translations came from the late Rutgers University law professor John Lowenthal, who as a law student worked as a volunteer for Alger Hiss's defense team, and later wrote extensively on the Hiss case. , According to the Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, the complicity of both Alger Hiss and Harry Dexter White is conclusively proven by Venona, stating "The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. He continued Venona-related work in London with MI5 from November 1952 and went on to lead Operation Cabin 12, the high-profile 1953–1954 defection to Australia of Soviet spy Vladimir Petrov.. At least one Soviet penetration agent, British Secret Intelligence Service representative to the U.S. Kim Philby, was told about the project in 1949, as part of his job as liaison between British and U.S. intelligence.  Until then, the left-leaning Australian Labor Party had been hostile to domestic intelligence agencies on civil-liberties grounds and a Labor government founding one seemed a surprising about-face. As Blum writes in his book, “The Soviet cryptologists had, in effect, locked the door once; then locked it again; and, finally, just to be sure no one could get in, they threw away the key.”.
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